Validation of the Multiracial Youth Socialization (MY-Soc) Scale Among Racially Diverse Multiracial Emerging Adults

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12 Scopus citations


Multiracial children are the largest demographic group in the United States among individuals under the age of 18 (Pew Research Center, 2015), but their developmental processes are understudied. Parents and caregivers play an important role in preparing youth to navigate racialized society by teaching them to understand what it means to be a member of a racial-ethnic group (Hughes et al., 2006). However, this process is more complex in multiracial families, where youth belong to multiple racial-ethnic groups. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to develop and validate the first measure of racial-ethnic socialization for Multiracial youth, the Multiracial Youth Socialization (MY-Soc) Scale, to assess the unique messages that are communicated in multiracial families regarding topics of race, ethnicity, and culture. Using a sample of 901 Multiracial emerging adults (mage = 22.43), we separately captured the socialization practices of two of the youths’ primary caregivers from the youths’ perspective. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a 62-item scale measuring eight types of socialization: Navigating Multiple Heritages Socialization, Multiracial Identity Socialization, Preparation for Monoracism Socialization, Negative Socialization, Colorblind Socialization, Diversity Appreciation Socialization, Race-Conscious Socialization, and Silent Socialization. The MY-Soc Scale was also supported by validity and reliability tests. This study contributes an important tool for scholars and practitioners to learn which racialethnic socialization messages are promotive for Multiracial youth development in different contexts.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)13-22
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Family Psychology
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2022


  • Family
  • Multiracial
  • Racial identity
  • Racial-ethnic socialization
  • Scale development

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychology(all)


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