Understanding travel constraints: Application and extension of a leisure constraints model

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258 Scopus citations


The study of constraints to participation in leisure activities has been a growing theme of research during the past three decades. More recently, this research has been extended to the study of nonparticipation in leisure travel. One model that has been employed to facilitate the study of constraints uses the three categories of constraints as a conceptual framework: intrapersonal, interpersonal, and structural. This article extends this framework by testing whether multiple dimensions exist within the structural constraints construct along with the other two dimensions and compares these against demographic variables. A survey of in-state and out-of-state travelers was conducted to measure travel constraints. As expected, three dimensions emerged within the structural constraints construct, including place attributes, lack of time, and lack of money. Several demographic differences with respect to constraints also emerged. Knowing why people do not travel can suggest strategies that can be used to overcome constraints.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)433-439
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Travel Research
Issue number4
StatePublished - May 2008


  • Domestic travel
  • Leisure constraints
  • Leisure travel
  • Nonparticipation
  • Structural constraints

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Transportation
  • Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management


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