M. F. Goodchild

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

3 Scopus citations


The representations that constitute the bulk of geographic knowledge must leave their users uncertain to some degree about the nature of the real world. Knowledge of geographic uncertainty is essential in geographic research, in decision making, and in everyday life. A variety of methods have been devised for measuring the degree of uncertainty inherent in geographic information. Models of uncertainty make use of the theoretical constructs of fuzzy and rough sets, spatial statistics, and geostatistics. Much progress has been made in recent years in developing methods for visualizing uncertainty, and for analyzing its propagation into the results of geographic research. Progress has also been made on the description of quality in data documentation, and in the use of dataset quality as a dimension of the processes of search and discovery.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationInternational Encyclopedia of Human Geography
PublisherElsevier Inc.
Number of pages5
ISBN (Electronic)9780080449104
ISBN (Print)9780080449111
StatePublished - Jan 1 2009
Externally publishedYes


  • Confidence limits
  • Error
  • Fuzzy set
  • Geographic information system
  • Geostatistics
  • Global Positioning System
  • Probability
  • Representation
  • Spatial dependence
  • Tobler's first law
  • Vagueness

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Social Sciences


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