Tumor necrosis factor and interferon: cytokines in harmony

Eric Bartee, Mohamed R. Mohamed, Grant McFadden

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

49 Scopus citations


Individually, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and the various interferons frequently display strong antiviral activities. Certain combinations of these cytokines, however, induce a synergistic antiviral state which is distinct from that induced by either one alone. This novel synergistic antiviral state likely occurs through several possible mechanisms, involves multiple signaling pathways, and inhibits a wider range of viruses than the individual cytokines alone. While underappreciated when first discovered, this synergistic phenomenon is proving to be of a much broader scope than initially thought. More work is needed to refine our understanding of this observation and its physiological implications for anti-pathogen responses.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)378-383
Number of pages6
JournalCurrent Opinion in Microbiology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Aug 2008
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases


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