Tourism policies and inclusive development: the case of Kenya and Rwanda

Christine N. Buzinde, Tanner Caterina-Knorr

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Drawing on the inclusive development conceptual framework, this study utilizes textual analysis to interrogate the development policies for two African nations, Kenya and Rwanda. Composed of three tenets, social inclusiveness, ecological inclusiveness and relational inclusiveness, this framework is rooted in theories of social justice and sustainable development. Social inclusiveness was accounted for in the findings vis-à-vis the participation of all in development, as well as protection and capacity building for the most vulnerable. However, participatory public processes aimed at pluralizing knowledges that inform development were not supported. Evidence for ecological inclusiveness included accounts on ecological limits, just sharing of the responsibility and risks of climate change, and participation of all stakeholders. Accounts on steps taken to protect the most vulnerable to climate change and engage all stakeholders in mitigation were absent. Relational inclusiveness included discussions on rule of law; however, wealth redistribution, critical assessment of taxation policies and protection of public resources from privatization were notably absent. The omissions are attributed to the histories of colonialism and neocolonial realities. Advocacy for locally defined and equitable approaches to development have become more pronounced globally, particularly in Africa, thus it is imperative for the tourism industry to align with these decolonial ideals.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of Sustainable Tourism
StateAccepted/In press - 2022


  • Kenya
  • Rwanda
  • Tourism policy
  • decolonialization
  • inclusive development
  • sustainable development

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management


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