Tough Love: The influence of an agent's negative affect on students' learning

Jeremiah Sullins, Scotty D. Craig, Arthur C. Graesser

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

9 Scopus citations


In this paper we explored the relationship between learning gains and affective displays of an animated pedagogical agent. Students read information on the topic of computer literacy while receiving either positive or negative affective responses from an on-screen animated agent. Analyses revealed that only students with low prior knowledge were influenced by the emotion displayed by the animated agent. We discuss the generalizability of our findings to other domains and the implications of these results on intelligent tutoring systems that are emotionally intelligent.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationFrontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications
PublisherIOS Press
Number of pages3
ISBN (Print)9781607500285
StatePublished - 2009
Externally publishedYes

Publication series

NameFrontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications
ISSN (Print)0922-6389
ISSN (Electronic)1879-8314


  • Affect
  • Animated agents
  • Emotion
  • Prior knowledge

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Artificial Intelligence


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