Tier 2 supports to improve motivation and performance of elementary students with behavioral challenges and poor work completion

Wendy Oakes, Kathleen Lynne Lane, Meredith Cox, Ashley Magrane, Abbie Jenkins, Katy Hankins

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


We offer a methodological illustration for researchers and practitioners of how to conduct a development study consistent with the parameters delineated by the Institute of Education Sciences (IES; U.S. Department of Education [USDE], 2010) to explore the utility of an existing Tier 1 intervention applied as a Tier 2 support within a three-tiered model. Although the present study was not submitted to or funded by IES, it was developed as a pilot study to address two objectives. First, we explored the utility of a character development intervention focused on improving goal setting, decision making, and selfmanagement skills to meet the behavioral and instructional needs of fourthgrade students who have behavioral challenges and limited work completion, but who have adequate literacy skills. The main questions pertained to treatment integrity and social validity, with a goal of having a fully-developed intervention ready for testing as part of an efficacy trial. Specific research questions were as follows: To what extent was this type of Tier 2 support implemented within the regular school day with integrity? What did teachers and students think about the goals, procedures, and outcomes? Did this initial evidence suggest this intervention resulted in students learning the content taught (proximal outcomes) translating into improved skill sets (intermediate outcomes) and ultimately improved motivation (distal outcomes)? Second, we conducted this study to field test the required components specified in the IES 2010 RFA to assist in the development of a proposal to be submitted to IES for funding.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)547-584
Number of pages38
JournalEducation and Treatment of Children
Issue number4
StatePublished - Nov 2012


  • Character Education
  • Emotional and Behavioral Disorders
  • Intervention
  • Tier 2

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology


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