Three-wave electron vortex lattices for measuring nanofields

C. Dwyer, C. B. Boothroyd, S. L.Y. Chang, R. E. Dunin-Borkowski

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


It is demonstrated how an electron-optical arrangement consisting of two electron biprisms can be used to generate three-wave vortex lattices with effective lattice spacings between 0.1 and 1. nm. The presence of vortices in these lattices was verified by using a third biprism to perform direct phase measurements via off-axis electron holography. The use of three-wave lattices for nanoscale electromagnetic field measurements via vortex interferometry is discussed, including the accuracy of vortex position measurements and the interpretation of three-wave vortex lattices in the presence of partial spatial coherence.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)25-30
Number of pages6
StatePublished - Sep 1 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • Holography
  • Partial coherence
  • Vortex
  • Vortex lattice

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Instrumentation


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