Thermodynamics of formation of simple spinels

A. Navrotsky, O. J. Kleppa

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The enthalpies of formation from the oxides of thirty-two 2-3 and 2-4 spinels have been determined by solution calorimetry in molten oxide solvents at 970°K. Spinels studied were the aluminates, ferrites, gallates, and manganites of Mg, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Cd, ZnAlFeO4, Mg2TiO4, Co2TiO4, Zn2TiO4, CoZnTiO4, ZnNiTiO4, Co2GeO4, and Ni2GeO4. When possible the enthalpy data have been combined with free energy data from the literature to calculate entropies of formation. Regularities in the thermodynamics of spinel formation have been discussed in terms of a "characteristic spinel-forming reaction".

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)479-498
Number of pages20
JournalJournal of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1968
Externally publishedYes


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