Thermochemistry of sodium rare earth ternary fluorides, NaREF4

Shuhao Yang, Andre Anderko, Richard E. Riman, Alexandra Navrotsky

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Sodium rare earth fluorides, NaREF4 (RE = rare earth), are used as luminescent materials for light emission and biomedical applications and are important compositions for extracting and separating RE elements. Solution calorimetric measurements of a series of β-structured NaREF4 (Na1.5RE1.5F6) phases with various RE elements determined their heats of formation. Though the lattice contracts from light to heavy RE elements, NaREF4 compounds show more exothermic enthalpies of formation from binary components with the decrease of RE3+ radii, contrary to behavior seen in most RE oxide ternary compounds. By constructing Born–Haber cycles, the different slopes of lines relating lattice energies to lattice parameters in binary and ternary fluorides appear to be the reason for this reverse trend, which can be associated with changes in the coordination number of RE cations. These trends and the metastability of sodium light RE fluorides not only reveal the key role of ionic radius in RE compound stability, but also are significant for the design and synthesis of new materials and motivate the more effective utilization of RE.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number117289
JournalActa Materialia
StatePublished - Nov 2021


  • Enthalpy of formation
  • Rare earth
  • Ternary fluoride
  • Thermodynamic stability

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Polymers and Plastics
  • Metals and Alloys


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