Thermal monitoring of volcanic effusive activity: The uncertainties and outlier detection

Klemen Zakšek, Leonie Pick, Manoochehr Shirzaei, Matthias Hort

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Thermal observations of volcanic activity when the volcano is partially covered by clouds or observed under a wide-scan angle are often removed from further analyses. In the event of a volcanic crisis, such a reduced set of data is not adequate. Even when the observation conditions are favourable, the full observation set is still required to provide decision-makers with quality information about the data. Automatic quality estimation and outlier detection was not estimated in the past. We propose to analytically define the uncertainty for individual observations based on the measurement circumstances. To additionally reduce the temporal noise of the radiant power (RP) time series we apply a Kalman Filter (KF). The KF is able to recursively analyse an unevenly sampled time series. Based on some proposed rules, it can also detect outliers. We apply the proposed methodology to the 2008-09 Etna eruption monitored by MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer). The analysis of the results shows that the topography has a greater influence on RP than previously considered.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)93-113
Number of pages21
JournalGeological Society Special Publication
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2016

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Water Science and Technology
  • Ocean Engineering
  • Geology


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