The revelation effect in frequency judgment

Brian H. Bornstein, Craig B. Neely

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations


In three experiments, we explored the revelation effect in a frequency judgment task. Participants estimated the frequency of words that had been presented one, two, four, or eight times. At test, half the words were revealed by completing word fragments, and half were presented intact. Estimated frequencies were reliably higher for revealed than for intact words, and in two of the three experiments, the revelation effect became larger as actual frequency increased. A revelation effect was obtained whether the revealed word was the same as (Experiment 1) or different from (Experiment 2) the word judged for frequency. Frequency estimates were higher for more distorted test items (Experiment 3).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberBF03194914
Pages (from-to)209-213
Number of pages5
JournalMemory and Cognition
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2001
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)


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