The long-term effects and cost-effectiveness of success for all

Geoffrey D. Borman, Gina M. Hewes

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

79 Scopus citations


Several renowned early interventions have compelling evidence of enduring achievement effects for at-risk children: Perry Preschool; the Abecedarian Project; and the Tennessee Class-Size Experiment. The costs and potential for national dissemination of such model programs, though, represent key practical concerns. This article examines the long-term outcomes and costs of another popular early intervention: Success for All. Relative to controls, Success for All students completed 8th grade at a younger age, with better achievement outcomes, fewer special education placements, fewer retentions, and at the same educational expense. Further cost-effectiveness comparisons to the three prominent interventions suggest that Success for All is deserving of similar recognition as a sound educational investment that provides strong and lasting educational benefits. None of these exemplary programs, though, can be expected to be the "great equalizer.".

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)243-266
Number of pages24
JournalEducational Evaluation and Policy Analysis
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2002
Externally publishedYes


  • At-risk students
  • Cost-effectiveness
  • School reform
  • Sustained effects

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education


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