The HOME-21: A Revised Measure of the Home Environment for the 21st Century Tested in Two Independent Samples

Jennifer E. Lansford, Candice L. Odgers, Robert H. Bradley, Jennifer Godwin, William E. Copeland, W. Andrew Rothenberg, Kenneth A. Dodge

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


For decades, the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) has been the most widely used measure of children’s home environments. This report provides a revised version of the HOME–Short Form, the HOME-21, reflecting historical changes in family composition and caregiver roles, norms about the acceptability of different forms of discipline, and children’s digital environments. Using data from two samples of parents of children ages 0–17 (Fast Track [FT], N = 553, age = 33.8, 49.2% female, 48.1% Black, 51.9% White/other; Great Smoky Mountains Study [GSMS], N = 722, age = 37.2, 54.7% female, 67.6% White, 6.6% Black, 25.8% American Indian), we assess the utility of the HOME-21 with descriptive statistics and correlations with a range of demographic, family context, parenting, and child adjustment measures. Higher HOME-21 scores were correlated with obtaining a high school diploma or equivalency diploma (in GSMS only), having 4 or more years of college, and household income. HOME-21 was also correlated with having a more favorable family context indexed by fewer stressful life events (in FT only), less household food insecurity, lower household chaos, and more perceived social support. Higher HOME-21 scores were correlated with better parenting in the form of parental acceptance, positive parenting, warm involvement, appropriate and consistent discipline, verbal discussion, less physical aggression, and greater parental self-efficacy. Higher HOME-21 scores were correlated with better child adjustment in terms of fewer emotional and conduct problems, less hyperactivity, and more prosocial behavior. The HOME-21 has utility for use in future studies of children’s home environments in the 21st century.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-11
Number of pages11
JournalPsychological Assessment
Issue number1
StatePublished - Sep 29 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Child development
  • Family context
  • Home environment
  • Home measure
  • Parenting

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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