The efficacy of learning strategies from the ICAP perspective

Michelene T.H. Chi, Nicole S. Boucher, Jesse Ha

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


The application of cognitive strategies for learning new information has been investigated in the literature for decades. ICAP, a theory about the four modes that students can engage to learn, can be used to rank and evaluate the effectiveness of strategies for enhancing learning with deeper understanding, based on the mode it belongs to, without carrying out an experimental study. Using the criteria for the ICAP modes, we categorized 50 different learning strategies according to the four modes of ICAP: Interactive, Constructive, Active, Passive, which predict learning levels in a descending order, from Interactive, to Constructive, to Active, to Passive.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationInternational Encyclopedia of Education
Subtitle of host publicationFourth Edition
Number of pages12
ISBN (Electronic)9780128186299
StatePublished - Jan 1 2022


  • Active learning
  • Cognitive learning strategies
  • Collaborative learning
  • Construct learning
  • Deeper learning
  • Generative learning
  • ICAP

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Sciences(all)


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