The ecology of Echo

Peter T. Hraber, Terry Jones, Stephanie Forrest

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

64 Scopus citations


Echo is a generic ecosystem model in which evolving agents are situated in a resource-limited environment. The Echo model is described, and the behavior of Echo is evaluated on two well-studied measures of ecological diversity: relative species abundance and the species-area scaling relation. In simulation experiments, these measures are used to compare the behavior of Echo with that of a neutral model, in which selection on agent genotypes is random. These simulations show that the evolutionary component of Echo makes a significant contribution to its behavior and that Echo shows good qualitative agreement with naturally occurring species abundance distributions and species-area scaling relations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)165-190
Number of pages26
JournalArtificial Life
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1997
Externally publishedYes


  • Community ecology
  • Echo
  • Genetic algorithms
  • Neutral model
  • Species diversity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Artificial Intelligence


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