The bryostatins are a unique family of emerging cancer chemotherapeutic candidates isolated from marine bryozoa. Although the biochemical basis for their therapeutic activity is not known, these macrolactones exhibit high affinities for protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes, compete for the phorbol ester binding site on PKC, and stimulate kinase activity in vitro and in vivo. Unlike the phorbol esters, they are not first-stage tumor promoters. The design, computer modeling, NMR solution structure, PKC binding, and functional assays of a unique class of synthetic bryostatin analogs are described. These analogs (7b, 7c, and 8) retain the putative recognition domain of the bryostatins but are simplified through deletions and modifications in the C4-C14 spacer domain. Computer modeling of an analog prototype (7a) indicates that it exists preferentially in two distinct conformational classes, one in close agreement with the crystal structure of bryostatin 1. The solution structure of synthetic analog 7c was determined by NMR spectroscopy and found to be very similar to the previously reported structures of bryostatins 1 and 10. Analogs 7b, 7c, and 8 bound strongly to PKC isozymes with K(i) = 297, 3.4, and 8.3 nM, respectively. Control 7d, like the corresponding bryostatin derivative, exhibited weak PKC affinity, as did the derivative, 9, lacking the spacer domain. Like bryostatin, acetal 7c exhibited significant levels of in vitro growth inhibitory activity (1.8-170 ng/ml) against several human cancer cell lines, providing an important step toward the development of simplified, synthetically accessible analogs of the bryostatins.
|Number of pages
|Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
|Published - Jun 9 1998
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