The influence of high volume cement replacement using a combination of slag and limestone, on the hydration, reaction products and pore structure, and strength of cementitious systems is reported in this paper. Total replacement levels vary from 20% to 50% by volume. Slag is blended with: (i) Portland-limestone cement (PLC) that contains limestone interground with cement, or (ii) OPC and limestone of four different sizes in such a way that the resulting particle size distribution of the composite matches that of the corresponding PLC-based mixture. The hydration response of cement and cement-slag mixtures are found to be modified in the presence of limestone. It is observed from calorimetric and thermogravimetric analysis that a favorable slag-limestone synergy exists, that enables high volume replacement of cement without concomitant loss in properties. The early-age compressive strengths are beneficially impacted by the presence of limestone whereas the clinker factor does not play a significant role in later-age strengths in both the blended and interground systems. The study paves the way for development of multiple-material binders containing higher levels of cement replacement that demonstrate early and later age properties that are comparable to or better than that of traditional straight cement systems.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)113-124
Number of pages12
JournalConstruction and Building Materials
StatePublished - Jan 15 2016


  • Blended cements
  • Hydration
  • Interground cements
  • Limestone
  • Pore structure
  • Slag

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Building and Construction
  • Materials Science(all)


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