Technological change and the concentration of the US general cargo port system: 1970-88

Michael Kuby, N. Reid

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

78 Scopus citations


Using the Gini coefficient, we show that general cargo port traffic has become more concentrated from 1970 to 1988 because of four technological changes: containerization, larger ships, larger trains, and computerisation of freight tracking and billing. These four technological changes have spawned four kinds of intermodal services: microbridge, minibridge, landbridge, and round-the-world. Anticipated future technological innovations are expected to continue the concentration trend. In a methodological note, we show how the Gini coefficient will tend to underestimate system concentration in longitudinal studies of contracting systems, and we introduce a simple step that may be taken to avoid this error. -from Authors

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)272-289
Number of pages18
JournalEconomic Geography
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jan 1 1992

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Economics and Econometrics


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