Techniques to Identify Themes

Gery W. Ryan, H. Russell Bernard

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3277 Scopus citations


Theme identification is one of the most fundamental tasks in qualitative research. It also is one of the most mysterious. Explicit descriptions of theme discovery are rarely found in articles and reports, and when they are, they are often relegated to appendices or footnotes. Techniques are shared among small groups of social scientists, but sharing is impeded by disciplinary or epistemological boundaries. The techniques described here are drawn from across epistemological and disciplinary boundaries. They include both observational and manipulative techniques and range from quick word counts to laborious, in-depth, line-by-line scrutiny. Techniques are compared on six dimensions: (1) appropriateness for data types, (2) required labor, (3) required expertise, (4) stage of analysis, (5) number and types of themes to be generated, and (6) issues of reliability and validity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)85-109
Number of pages25
JournalField Methods
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 2003
Externally publishedYes


  • open coding
  • qualitative analysis
  • qualitative research methods
  • text analysis
  • theme identification

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Anthropology


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