Synchrotron x-ray characterization of alkali elements at grain boundaries in Cu(In, Ga)Se2 solar cells

Bradley West, Michael Stuckelberger, Harvey Guthrey, Lei Chen, Barry Lai, Jorg Maser, Volker Rose, James J. Dynes, William Shafarman, Mowafak Al-Jassim, Mariana Bertoni

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

4 Scopus citations


It is well known that the addition of alkali elements such as Na and K during and after growth of Cu(In, Ga)Se2 (CIGS) has beneficial effects on the electronic properties of bulk material, improving device performance significantly. While the device level effects have been measured and reported, a direct observations of the localization of Na including its chemical nature are missing, and the impact of Na on elemental and phase segregation during CIGS growth is not fully understood. We investigate these aspects to shine light on the role of Na in CIGS solar cells with the ultimate goal of increasing their conversion efficiency. Utilizing a suite of synchrotron based x-ray characterization techniques, we discuss the challenges and advantages of these techniques for investigating segregation of main constituents of CIGS, Na distribution, chemical bonding of Na, and collection efficiency in CIGS as well as their correlations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publication2016 IEEE 43rd Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, PVSC 2016
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Number of pages4
ISBN (Electronic)9781509027248
StatePublished - Nov 18 2016
Event43rd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, PVSC 2016 - Portland, United States
Duration: Jun 5 2016Jun 10 2016

Publication series

NameConference Record of the IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference
ISSN (Print)0160-8371


Other43rd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, PVSC 2016
Country/TerritoryUnited States


  • CIGS
  • Na
  • XRF
  • alkali
  • grain boundaries

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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