Susceptor-assisted microwave annealing for activation of arsenic dopants in silicon

Terry Alford, Mandar J. Gadre, Rajitha N P Vemuri, N. David Theodore

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Microwave annealing of arsenic-doped silicon was employed to achieve nearly complete dopant activation and repair of damage caused by ion implantation. Analysis of Rutherford backscattering spectra suggested that volumetric heating from microwaves can repair ion-implantation damage. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy depth profiling revealed that even with high damage due to implanted arsenic, microwave annealing achieves repair of lattice damage, and electrical activation of dopants without allowing any significant dopant diffusion into the silicon substrate. Surface temperatures greater than 700 °C were achieved within ∼ 100 s with assisted microwave heating, marking this as a quick annealing technique when compared to un-assisted annealing. This temperature was sufficient for solid phase epitaxial growth in Si. The temperature profile recorded by a thermocouple-calibarated IR pyrometer was explained based upon the type of losses the sample undergoes while heating. The mechanism for susceptor-assisted microwave heating was dominated by dipole polarization losses in the initial stages of anneal and by Ohmic conduction losses at higher temperatures. Cross-section transmission electron microscopy, along with ion channeling spectra indicated that the silicon lattice regained nearly all of its crystallinity during the microwave anneal. Hall measurement and sheet resistance characterization were used to assess the extent of dopant activation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4314-4320
Number of pages7
JournalThin Solid Films
Issue number13
StatePublished - Apr 30 2012


  • Dopant activation
  • Microwave anneal
  • Minimum dopant diffusion
  • Solid phase epitaxial regrowth

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Surfaces and Interfaces
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Materials Chemistry


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