Surface structure analysis of Eu Zintl template on Ge(001)

Patrick Ponath, Ali K. Hamze, Agham B. Posadas, Sirong Lu, Hsin Wei Wu, David Smith, Alexander A. Demkov

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


The surface reconstructions and surface core level shifts of 0.25 monolayer (ML), 0.5 ML and 1.0 ML of europium (Eu) on the Ge(001) surface are investigated experimentally and theoretically, using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and density functional theory (DFT). Starting with a clean Ge(001) surface we find that the surface reconstruction changes from the initial (2 × 1) to a (3 × 2), (8 × 1) and a final (3 × 1) pattern with increasing Eu coverage of 0.25 ML, 0.5 ML and 1.0 ML, respectively. XPS scans demonstrate that the Ge 3d core level shifts to higher binding energies with increasing Eu coverage. We find that Eu is in the 2+ oxidation state, transferring its charge to the Ge surface, resulting in the disappearance of the asymmetry of the dimer tilt at a coverage of 0.5 ML of Eu. From density functional calculations we find that the Ge dimers flatten out at 0.5 ML Eu coverage and partially break apart at 1.0 ML Eu.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)94-102
Number of pages9
JournalSurface Science
StatePublished - Aug 2018

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Surfaces and Interfaces
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Materials Chemistry


Dive into the research topics of 'Surface structure analysis of Eu Zintl template on Ge(001)'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this