State of science: models and methods for understanding and enhancing teams and teamwork in complex sociotechnical systems

Aaron P.J. Roberts, Leonie V. Webster, Paul M. Salmon, Rhona Flin, Eduardo Salas, Nancy J. Cooke, Gemma J.M. Read, Neville A. Stanton

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


This state of the science review brings together the disparate literature of effective strategies for enhancing and accelerating team performance. The review evaluates and synthesises models and proposes recommended avenues for future research. The two major models of the Input-Mediator-Output-Input (IMOI) framework and the Big Five dimensions of teamwork were reviewed and both will need significant development for application to future teams comprising non-human agents. Research suggests that a multi-method approach is appropriate for team measurements, such as the integration of methods from self-report, observer ratings, event-based measurement and automated recordings. Simulations are recommended as the most effective team-based training interventions. The impact of new technology and autonomous agents is discussed with respect to the changing nature of teamwork. In particular, whether existing teamwork models and measures are suitable to support the design, operation and evaluation of human-nonhuman teams of the future. Practitioner summary: This review recommends a multi-method approach to the measurement and evaluation of teamwork. Team models will need to be adapted to describe interaction with non-human agents, which is what the future is most likely to hold. The most effective team training interventions use simulation-based approaches.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)161-187
Number of pages27
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2022


  • Team
  • interventions
  • measurement
  • team training
  • teamwork

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Human Factors and Ergonomics
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation


Dive into the research topics of 'State of science: models and methods for understanding and enhancing teams and teamwork in complex sociotechnical systems'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this