Stable hole doping of graphene for low electrical resistance and high optical transparency

S. Tongay, K. Berke, M. Lemaitre, Z. Nasrollahi, D. B. Tanner, A. F. Hebard, B. R. Appleton

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

162 Scopus citations


We report on the pdoping of graphene with the polymer TFSA ((CF 3SO2)2NH). Modification of graphene with TFSA decreases the graphene sheet resistance by 70%. Through such modification, we report sheet resistance values as low as 129Ω, thus attaining values comparable to those of indium-tin oxide (ITO), while displaying superior environmental stability and preserving electrical properties over extended time scales. Electrical transport measurements reveal that, after doping, the carrier density of holes increases, consistent with the acceptor nature of TFSA, and the mobility decreases due to enhanced short-range scattering. The Drude formula predicts that competition between these two effects yields an overall increase in conductivity. We confirm changes in the carrier density and Fermi level of graphene through changes in the Raman G and 2D peak positions. Doped graphene samples display high transmittance in the visible and near-infrared spectrum, preserving graphene's optical properties without any significant reduction in transparency, and are therefore superior to ITO films in the near infrared. The presented results allow integration of doped graphene sheets into optoelectronics, solar cells, and thermoelectric solar cells as well as engineering of the electrical characteristics of various devices by tuning the Fermi level of graphene.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number425701
Issue number42
StatePublished - Oct 21 2011
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • General Chemistry
  • General Materials Science
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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