Spoken versus typed human and computer dialogue Tutoring

Diane J. Litman, Carolyn P. Rosé, Kate Forbes-Riley, Kurt VanLehn, Dumisizwe Bhembe, Scott Silliman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

75 Scopus citations


While human tutors typically interact with students using spoken dialogue, most computer dialogue tutors are text-based. We have conducted two experiments comparing typed and spoken tutoring dialogues, one in a human-human scenario, and another in a human-computer scenario. In both experiments, we compared spoken versus typed tutoring for learning gains and time on task, and also measured the correlations of learning gains with dialogue features. Our main results are that changing the modality from text to speech caused changes in the learning gains, time and superficial dialogue characteristics of human tutoring, but for computer tutoring it made less difference.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)145-170
Number of pages26
JournalInternational Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2006
Externally publishedYes


  • Dialogue
  • Evaluation of AIED systems
  • Intelligent tutoring systems
  • Natural language interfaces for instructional systems
  • Spoken language interface

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Computational Theory and Mathematics


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