Spatial distribution of acaricide profiles (Boophilus microplus strains susceptible or resistant to acaricides) in southeastern Mexico

R. I. Rodríguez-Vivas, A. L. Rivas, G. Chowell, S. H. Fragoso, C. R. Rosario, Z. García, S. D. Smith, J. J. Williams, S. J. Schwager

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

59 Scopus citations


The ability of Boophilus microplus strains to be susceptible (-) or resistant (+) to amidines (Am), synthetic pyrethroids (SP), and/or organo-phosphates (OP) (or acaricide profiles) was investigated in 217 southeastern Mexican cattle ranches (located in the states of Yucatán, Quintana Roo, and Tabasco). Three questions were asked: (1) whether acaricide profiles varied at random and, if not, which one(s) explained more (or less) cases than expected, (2) whether the spatial distribution of acaricide profiles was randomly or non-randomly distributed, and (3) whether acaricide profiles were associated with farm-related covariates (frequency of annual treatments, herd size, and farm size). Three acaricide profiles explained 73.6% of the data, representing at least twice as many cases as expected (P < 0.001): (1) Am-SP-, (2) Am+SP+, and (3) (among ranches that dispensed acaricides ≥6 times/year) Am-OP+SP+. Because ticks collected in Yucatán ranches tended to be susceptible to Am, those of Quintana Roo ranches displayed, predominantly, resistance to OP/SP, and Tabasco ticks tended to be resistant to Am (all with P ≤ 0.05), acaricide profiles appeared to be non-randomly disseminated over space. Across states, two farm-related covariates were associated with resistance (P ≤ 0.02): (1) high annual frequency of acaricide treatments, and (2) large farm size. Findings supported the hypothesis that spatial acaricide profiles followed neither random nor homogeneous data distributions, being partially explained by agent- and/or farm-specific factors. Some profiles could not be explained by these factors. Further spatially explicit studies (addressing host-related factors) are recommended.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)158-169
Number of pages12
JournalVeterinary Parasitology
Issue number1-2
StatePublished - May 15 2007


  • Acaricide resistance
  • Boophilus microplus
  • Mexico
  • Spatial analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Parasitology
  • General Veterinary


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