Separate but equal? Desegregating Baltimore's gold courses

James E. Wells, Geoffrey L. Buckley, Christopher Boone

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations


Between the time of its opening, in 1923, and 1956, when the last vestiges of official segregation were swept away by the courts, the Carroll Park Municipal Golf Course in Baltimore, Maryland, figured prominently in the struggle to desegregate the city's recreational facilities. In this article we use historical sources to examine how access to Carroll Park was shaped by issues of race and ethnicity during the first half of the twentieth century, focusing specifically on the role the park played in the struggle to desegregate Baltimore's golf courses. We also consider how this victory ultimately contributed to desegregation at the city's other recreational facilities, including ball fields and swimming pools.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)151-170
Number of pages20
JournalGeographical Review
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 2008


  • Baltimore
  • Civil rights
  • Environmental justice
  • Segregation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Earth-Surface Processes


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