Semiconductor dopant profiling by off-axis electron holography

Jing Li, Martha McCartney, David Smith

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

38 Scopus citations


Silicon wafers with a complex but known dopant profile were used to explore possible methods for improving the reliability of off-axis electron holography for quantitative determination of electrostatic potential profiles in doped semiconductor devices. The variability of results from nominally identical structures was attributed to local charging and associated external fields, forcing the development of a more robust approach to hologram analysis that incorporated an additional phase correction factor rather than rely on vacuum for phase flattening. Consistent results in close agreement with simulated profiles based on measured dopant distributions could then be obtained. Carbon coating was shown to be effective in reducing accumulation of charge caused by emission of secondary electrons. Overall, this work demonstrates that reliable potential profiles from unbiased samples should be obtainable on a routine basis provided that regions suitable for flattening of the phase profile can be identified.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)149-161
Number of pages13
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2003

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Instrumentation


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