Relations of effortful control, reactive undercontrol, and anger to Chinese children's adjustment

Nancy Eisenberg, Yue Ma, Lei Chang, Qing Zhou, Stephen West, Leona Aiken

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

65 Scopus citations


The purpose of the study was to examine the zero-order and unique relations of effortful attentional and behavioral regulation, reactive impulsivity, and anger/frustration to Chinese first and second graders' internalizing and externalizing symptoms, as well as the prediction of adjustment from the interaction of anger/frustration and effortful control or impulsivity. A parent and teacher reported on children's anger/frustration, effortful control, and impulsivity. Parents reported on children's internalizing symptoms, and teachers and peers reported on children's externalizing symptoms. Children were classified as relatively high on externalizing (or comorbid), internalizing, or nondisordered. High impulsivity and teacher-reported anger/frustration, and low effortful control, were associated with externalizing problems, whereas low effortful control and high parent-reported anger were predictive of internalizing problems. Unique prediction from effortful and reactive control was obtained and these predictors (especially when reported by teachers) often interacted with anger/frustration when predicting problem behavior classification.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)385-409
Number of pages25
JournalDevelopment and psychopathology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 2007

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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