PV Module Toxicity Testing Methods and Results: A Literature Review

F. Li, S. Shaw, C. Libby, B. Bicer, G. Tamizhmani

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution


Solar photovoltaic (PV) modules may contain a variety of toxic elements in the electrical contact and/or semiconductor material that could pose environmental and health risks during end-of-life management. This paper provides an overview of the literature related to toxicity testing methodologies, standards and experimental results. It covers various topics including: number and scope of publications available in the toxicity related areas; identification of toxic elements present in silicon-based modules and thin film modules; toxicity testing standards/protocols currently required/used in various countries/jurisdictions; size and location of particles removed from modules to create samples for toxicity testing; particle cutting methodologies used by various industry stakeholders/researchers; leach testing results; and a new international standard for sampling modules for toxicity testing.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publication2022 IEEE 49th Photovoltaics Specialists Conference, PVSC 2022
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Number of pages4
ISBN (Electronic)9781728161174
StatePublished - 2022
Event49th IEEE Photovoltaics Specialists Conference, PVSC 2022 - Philadelphia, United States
Duration: Jun 5 2022Jun 10 2022

Publication series

NameConference Record of the IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference
ISSN (Print)0160-8371


Conference49th IEEE Photovoltaics Specialists Conference, PVSC 2022
Country/TerritoryUnited States


  • cadmium
  • leaching test
  • lead
  • PV module
  • TCLP
  • toxicity
  • WET

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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