Putting All Your Eggs in One Basket: Life-History Strategies, Bet Hedging, and Diversification

Andrew Edward White, Yexin Jessica Li, Vladas Griskevicius, Steven Neuberg, Douglas Kenrick

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

52 Scopus citations


Diversification of resources is a strategy found everywhere from the level of microorganisms to that of giant Wall Street investment firms. We examine the functional nature of diversification using life-history theory-a framework for understanding how organisms navigate resource-allocation trade-offs. This framework suggests that diversification may be adaptive or maladaptive depending on one's life-history strategy and that these differences should be observed under conditions of threat. In three studies, we found that cues of mortality threat interact with one index of life-history strategy, childhood socioeconomic status (SES), to affect diversification. Among those from low-SES backgrounds, mortality threat increased preferences for diversification. However, among those from high-SES backgrounds, mortality threat had the opposite effect, inclining people to put all their eggs in one basket. The same interaction pattern emerged with a potential biomarker of life-history strategy, oxidative stress. These findings highlight when, and for whom, different diversification strategies can be advantageous.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)715-722
Number of pages8
JournalPsychological Science
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2013


  • evolutionary psychology
  • socioeconomic status

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychology(all)


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