Psychological approaches to myopia: A review

Richard I. Lanyon, John W. Giddings

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This paper reviews the literature on psychological or behavioral factors in the development and modification of myopia. A wide variety of topics in psychology have been involved in this work, and there are a number of potentially fruitful areas for further research. In regard to the development of myopia, the following were concluded: axial length of the eyeball is a critical physiological variable; beredity plays a definite though minor role; there are personality and intellectual correlates of myopia; and excessive visual near-work behavior is almost certainly a powerful relevant factor. In regard to modification, little has as yet been accomplished, although the demonstration of temporary changes in subjective acuity and refractive error by behavioral means supports a view of myopia as a behavioral physiological disorder.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)271-281
Number of pages11
JournalOptometry and Vision Science
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1974
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology
  • Optometry


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