Proton imaging of siloxanes to map tissue oxygenation levels (PISTOL): A tool for quantitative tissue oximetry

Vikram D. Kodibagkar, Xianghui Wang, Jesüs Pacheco-Torres, Praveen Gulaka, Ralph P. Mason

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

46 Scopus citations


Hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) has been identified as a sensitive proton NMR indicator of tissue oxygenation (pO2) based on spectroscopic spin-lattice relaxometry. A rapid MRI approach has now been designed, implemented, and tested. The technique, proton imaging of siloxanes to map tissue oxygenation levels (PISTOL), utilizes frequency-selective excitation of the HMDSO resonance and chemical-shift selective suppression of residual water signal to effectively eliminate water and fat signals and pulse-burst saturation recovery 1H echo planar imaging to map T1 of HMDSO and hence pO2. PISTOL was used here to obtain maps of pO2 in rat thigh muscle and Dunning prostate R3327 MAT-Lu tumor-implanted rats. Measurements were repeated to assess baseline stability and response to breathing of hyperoxic gas. Each pO2 map was obtained in 3 1/2 min, facilitating dynamic measurements of response to oxygen intervention. Altering the inhaled gas to oxygen produced a significant increase in mean pO2 from 55 Torr to 238 Torr in thigh muscle and a smaller, but significant, increase in mean pO2 from 17 Torr to 78 Torr in MAT-Lu tumors. Thus, PISTOL enabled mapping of tissue pO2 at multiple locations and dynamic changes in pO2 in response to intervention. This new method offers a potentially valuable new tool to image pO2 in vivo for any healthy or diseased state by 1H MRI.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)899-907
Number of pages9
JournalNMR in Biomedicine
Issue number8
StatePublished - Oct 2008
Externally publishedYes


  • Echo planar imaging (EPI)
  • Hexamethyldisiloxane
  • Muscle
  • Oximetry
  • Oxygen tension
  • Prostate tumor
  • Water and fat suppression

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Spectroscopy


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