Project ENHANCE: Assessing Professional Learning Needs for Implementing Comprehensive, Integrated, Three-Tiered (Ci3T) Models of Prevention

Eric Alan Common, Mark Matthew Buckman, Kathleen Lynne Lane, Wendy Peia Oakes, David James Royer, Sandra Chafouleas, Amy Briesch, Rebecca Sherod

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


We report findings from a multistate survey of 720 faculty and staff from 25 elementary schools in five districts across three states and geographic regions participating in an IES Network grant examining integrated tiered systems. In this preregistered study, we replicated and extended previous inquiry examining educators’ views of (1) implementation of core components of their school’s Comprehensive, Integrated, Three-Tiered (Ci3T) model of prevention; and (2) preference for professional learning (content and avenue). Results indicated more than half of respondents indicated high levels of implementation of core features of Ci3T across Tiers 1, 2, and 3. Educators reported high levels of implementation for 10 out of 19 research-based educational practices used within tiered systems with a statistically significant relation between ratings of implemented practices and the desire for support with most practices. Respondents identified their top three areas for professional development needed in the coming year as behavior deescalation techniques, small-group social skills instruction, and strategies for supporting students with internalizing behavior patterns. For potential professional learning avenues, respondents’ top ratings were in-district, during-school workshops, course for college credit on-line, teacher collaboratives/networks, and one-to-one coaching or mentoring. There were many similarities among educators’ ratings across implementation year and state. Low levels of implementation across many core Ci3T and common educational practices were reported by educators working within the most experienced schools. We conclude with a discussion of implications, limitations, and future directions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)125-144
Number of pages20
JournalEducation and Treatment of Children
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Ci3T
  • Positive behavioral interventions and supports
  • Professional learning
  • Technical assistance
  • Tiered system of supports

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology


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