Private tutoring in Eastern Europe and Central Asia: Policy choices and implications

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101 Scopus citations


Private tutoring has become increasingly visible in Eastern Europe and Central Asia since the collapse of the socialist bloc in the early 1990s. Yet, this unprecedented growth of private tutoring, in its varied forms and arrangements, has remained largely unnoticed by policymakers in the region. Based on the data from the cross-national studies of private tutoring in 12 countries, this explorative study examines factors driving the demand for private tutoring and discusses government responses to private tutoring in Azerbaijan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Georgia, Lithuania, Mongolia, Poland, Slovakia, and Ukraine (research conducted in 2004-2005) and Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan (research conducted in 2005-2006). The article analyzes various policy contexts and examines challenges that confront education stakeholders and policymakers as they formulate their responses to the rapidly-spreading and constantly-changing phenomenon of private tutoring. Finally, the article discusses whether, and to what extent, the existence of regulatory mechanisms influences the scope, nature, and implications of private tutoring across the countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)327-344
Number of pages18
Issue number3
StatePublished - May 2010
Externally publishedYes


  • Central Asia
  • Eastern Europe
  • Post-socialist transformations
  • Private tutoring

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education


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