Primary grade teachers' instructional adaptations for struggling writers: A national survey

Steve Graham, Karen R. Harris, Barbara Fink-Chorzempa, Charles MacArthur

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

120 Scopus citations


Primary grade teachers from across the United States were surveyed about their instructional adaptations for weaker writers. Although many teachers were sensitive to struggling writers' individual needs, there was a sizable percentage of teachers (42%) who made few or no adaptations. The most common adaptations made by teachers addressed students' difficulties with the mechanics of writing or writing processes, such as planning and revising. Other adaptations that were relatively common involved providing extra conferences, minilessons, and reteaching. Percentage of classroom students with special needs and amount of time students spend writing each week both made a significant contribution to predicting the number of adaptations reported by teachers, once the contribution of all other variables was controlled.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)279-292
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Educational Psychology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 2003
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology


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