Prediger's Dimensional Representation of Holland's RIASEC Circumplex

James Rounds, Terence J. Tracey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

153 Scopus citations


The authors conducted a structural meta-analysis to evaluate D. J. Prediger's (1982) 3-factor (1 general factor and 2 bipolar factors of data-ideas and things-people) representation of J. L. Holland's (1985a) RIASEC circumplex (including six personality types: realistic [R], investigative [I], artistic [A], social [S], enterprising [E], and conventional [C]). Confirmatory factor analysis and multidimensional scaling were applied to 77 U.S. RIASEC correlation matrices published between 1965 and 1989. Prediger's 3-factor model received support when predictions from his factor model conformed to the predictions from the circumplex. The presence and size of the general factor were confirmed, but the differential biasing effect of the general factor on the RIASEC structure was not supported. Although the uniqueness of the bipolar dimensions was not supported, these dimensions were found to be generalizable across subject variables and several RIASEC inventories. It appears that the circumplex structure itself is the crucial distinguishing feature.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)875-890
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of Applied Psychology
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 1993
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Applied Psychology


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