Heterogeneous multiprocessor systems-on-chip (MPSoCs) powering mobile platforms integrate multiple asymmetric CPU cores, a GPU, and many specialized processors. When the MPSoC operates close to its peak performance, power dissipation easily increases the temperature, hence adversely impacts reliability. Since using a fan is not a viable solution for hand-held devices, there is a strong need for dynamic thermal and power management (DTPM) algorithms that can regulate temperature with minimal performance impact. This paper presents a DTPM algorithm based on a practical temperature prediction methodology using system identification. The DTPM algorithm dynamically computes a power budget using the predicted temperature, and controls the types and number of active processors as well as their frequencies. Experiments on an octa-core big. LITTLE processor and common Android apps demonstrate that the proposed technique predicts temperature within 3% accuracy, while the DTPM algorithm provides around 6× reduction in temperature variance, and as large as 16% reduction in total platform power compared to using a fan.