Practice-based professional development and Self-Regulated Strategy Development for Tier 2, at-risk writers in second grade

Karen Harris, Stephen Graham, Mary Adkins

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

85 Scopus citations


In this randomized controlled study, we investigated implementation of Self-Regulated Strategy Development (SRSD) in story writing by 11 second grade teachers who first collaborated in practice-based professional development in SRSD. Students at-risk for failure in writing were randomly assigned to treatment and control conditions in each teacher's classroom. Teachers implemented SRSD with small groups of students at-risk for failure in writing (referred to as Tier 2 intervention in the Response to Intervention, or RTI, model) in their classrooms; control students at-risk in writing received regular classroom instruction from their teachers. Integrity of strategies instruction and social validity were assessed among the participating teachers. Student outcomes assessed included inclusion of genre elements and story quality, generalization to personal narrative, and teacher perceptions of intrinsic motivation and effort for writing. Teachers implemented strategies instruction with high integrity; social validity was positive. Significant effects were found for inclusion of genre elements and story quality at both posttest and maintenance; effect sizes were large (.89-1.65). Intervention also resulted in significant generalization to personal narrative (effect sizes were .98 for elements and .88 for quality). Teachers reported significantly higher perceptions of both intrinsic motivation and effort (effect sizes were 1.09 and 1.07, respectively). Limitations and directions for future research are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5-16
Number of pages12
JournalContemporary Educational Psychology
StatePublished - Jan 1 2015


  • Practice based professional development
  • Professional development
  • Self-regulated strategies development
  • Tier 2
  • Writing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology


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