Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measures the frequency spectrum of an electrochemical interface to resist an alternating current. This method allows label-free and noninvasive studies on interfacial adsorption and molecular interactions and has applications in biosensing and drug screening. Although powerful, traditional EIS lacks spatial resolution or imaging capability, hindering the study of heterogeneous electrochemical processes on electrodes. We have recently developed a plasmonics-based electrochemical impedance technique to image local electrochemical impedance with a submicron spatial resolution and a submillisecond temporal resolution. In this review, we provide a systematic description of the theory, instrumentation, and data analysis of this technique. To illustrate its present and future applications, we further describe several selected samples analyzed with this method, including protein microarrays, two-dimensional materials, and single cells. We conclude by summarizing the technique's unique features and discussing the remaining challenges and new directions of its application.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)183-200
Number of pages18
JournalAnnual Review of Analytical Chemistry
StatePublished - Jun 12 2017


  • Electrochemical impedance microscopy
  • Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy
  • Plasmonic imaging
  • Single-cell imaging
  • Surface plasmon resonance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry


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