Peer and teacher supports in relation to motivation and effort: A multi-level study

Kathryn R. Wentzel, Katherine Muenks, Daniel McNeish, Shannon Russell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

91 Scopus citations


This study examined adolescents’ perceptions of peer and teacher supports in relation to internalized values, academic self-efficacy, efforts to learn, and goal orientations at the individual and classroom level in a sample of middle school (n = 169) and high school (n = 71) students from 6 schools (15 classrooms). Novel approaches to assessing classroom-level effects included use of coefficient of variation scores to capture consensus among student reports and use of cluster-robust standard errors to account for clustering. At the individual level, significance tests for indirect pathways and formal mediation indicated that relations between perceived peer expectations for prosocial behavior and effort and mastery orientation were mediated by internalized value; and, the relation between perceived emotional support from peers and effort was mediated by self-efficacy. At the classroom level, teachers who were perceived similarly by students with respect to provisions of emotional support also tended to have students who reported high levels of internalized value, and a high degree of student consensus concerning their teacher's value for subject matter was related positively to their internalized value and effort. Consensus of student reports concerning internalized value was a negative predictor of performance orientation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)32-45
Number of pages14
JournalContemporary Educational Psychology
StatePublished - Apr 1 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • Effort
  • Motivation
  • Peers
  • Social support
  • Teachers

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology


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