Oxidation behavior of rare-earth-containing Pb-free solders

M. A. Dudek, Nikhilesh Chawla

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

49 Scopus citations


We have previously shown that small additions of the rare-earth (RE) element La to Sn-Ag-Cu alloys significantly increases their ductility, without significant loss in the overall strength. However, due to the high reactivity of La with oxygen, oxidation of the La-containing phases can affect the mechanical performance of the solder. In this work, we have investigated the effect of the addition of 2 wt.% Ce, La and Y on the oxidation behavior of Sn-3.9Ag-0.7Cu. Oxidation kinetics were established by heating samples in ambient air to 60°C, 95°C or 130°C for up to 250 h. Microstructural characterization of the samples, before and after oxidation, was conducted in order to determine the influence of RE-containing phases on the oxidation kinetics. The oxidation mechanism, including the phenomenon of Sn whiskering during oxidation, is also discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)210-220
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Electronic Materials
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2009


  • Oxidation
  • Pb-free solder
  • Rare-earth

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Materials Chemistry


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