One-Port Direct/Reverse Method for Characterizing VNA Calibration Standards

Raul A. Monsalve, Alan E E Rogers, Thomas J. Mozdzen, Judd Bowman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


This paper introduces a one-port method for estimating model parameters of vector network analyzer calibration standards. The method involves measuring the standards through an asymmetrical passive network connected in direct mode and then in reverse mode, and using these measurements to compute the S-parameters of the network. The free parameters of the calibration standards are estimated by minimizing a figure of merit based on the expected equality of the S-parameters of the network when used in direct and reverse modes. The capabilities of the method are demonstrated through simulations, and real measurements are used to estimate the actual offset delay of a 50-Ω calibration load that is assigned zero delay by the manufacturer. The estimated delay is 38.8 ps with a 1σ uncertainty of 2.1 ps for this particular load. This result is verified through measurements of a terminated airline. The measurements agree better with theoretical models of the airline when the reference plane is calibrated using the new estimate for the load delay.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number7502079
Pages (from-to)2631-2639
Number of pages9
JournalIEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2016


  • Delay
  • impedance
  • reflection standards
  • scattering parameters
  • vector network analyzer (VNA)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiation
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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