NanoProbeArrays for the analysis of ultra-low-volume protein samples using piezoelectric liquid dispensing technology

Vinay Janthakahalli Nagaraj, Seron Eaton, Peter Wiktor

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


Antibody microarrays are gaining popularity as a high-throughput technology to investigate the proteome. However, protein extracts from most body fluid or biopsy samples are available in very small volumes and are often unsuitable for large-scale antibody microarray studies. To demonstrate the potential for protein analysis with as little as a few nanoliters of sample, we have developed a new technology called NanoProbeArrays based on piezoelectric liquid dispensing for non-contact printing and probing of antibody arrays. Instead of flooding the protein sample on the antibody microarray surface, as in conventional microarray screening, a piezoelectric inkjet printer is used to dispense nanoliters of fluorescently labeled proteins over the antibody spots on the array. The ability of NanoProbeArrays to precisely identify and reliably distinguish between test proteins from different sources, without any loss of sensitivity and specificity as compared with conventional antibody microarrays, is illustrated here. The utility of NanoProbeArrays for biomarker identification in a complex biological sample was tested by detecting the cytokine interleukin-4 in serum. The significant reduction in volume of sample during NanoProbeArray analysis, as compared with conventional antibody microarrays, offers new opportunities for basic and applied proteomic research.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)126-133
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Laboratory Automation
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 2011


  • Antibody NanoProbeArray
  • Antibody microarray
  • Biomarker identification
  • Low-volume protein analysis
  • Piezoelectric liquid dispensing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Science Applications
  • Medical Laboratory Technology


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