The semiconductor device-based electronics industry has been the largest industry in the world with global sales of over a trillion dollars since 1998. The revolution in the semiconductor industry, a large portion of the electronics industry, began in 1947 with the fabrication of bipolar devices on slabs of polycrystalline germanium (Ge). Single-crystalline materials were later proposed and introduced that made possible the fabrication of grown junction transistors. Migration to silicon (Si)-based devices was initially hindered by the stability of the Si/SiO2 materials system, necessitating a new generation of crystal pullers with improved environmental controls to prevent SiO2 formation. Later, the stability and low interface-state density of the Si/SiO2 materials system provided passivation of junctions and eventually, the migration from bipolar devices to field-effect devices in 1960. By 1968, both complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) devices and poly-Si gate technology that allowed self-alignment of the gate to the source/drain of the device had been developed. These innovations permitted a significant reduction in power dissipation and a reduction of the overlap capacitance, improving frequency performance and resulting in the essential components of the modern CMOS device.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationHandbook of Optoelectronic Device Modeling and Simulation
Subtitle of host publicationLasers, Modulators, Photodetectors, Solar Cells, and Numerical Methods
PublisherCRC Press
Number of pages34
ISBN (Electronic)9781498749572
ISBN (Print)1498749569, 9781498749565
StatePublished - Jan 1 2017

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Engineering
  • General Physics and Astronomy
  • General Materials Science


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