Molecular beam epitaxy using bismuth as a constituent in InAs and a surfactant in InAs/InAsSb superlattices

Preston T. Webster, Nathaniel A. Riordan, Chaturvedi Gogineni, Shi Liu, Jing Lu, Xin Hao Zhao, David Smith, Yong-Hang Zhang, Shane Johnson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Scopus citations


Alloying bismuth with InAs provides a ternary material system near the 6.1 Å lattice constant, which covers the technologically important mid- and long-wavelength infrared region. One challenge for this material system is that it is not straightforward to incorporate bismuth into the bulk InAs lattice, since bismuth has a tendency to surface-segregate and form droplets during growth. In this work, the conditions for InAsBi growth using molecular beam epitaxy are explored. A growth window is identified (temperatures ? 270°C, V/III flux ratios 0.98 ? As/In ? 1.02, and Bi/In ≅ 0.065) for droplet-free, high-quality crystalline material, where InAsBi layers with compositions of up to 5.8% bismuth (nearly lattice-matched to GaSb) are attained. The structural quality of InAsBi bulk and quantum well samples is evaluated using x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The optical quality is assessed using photoluminescence, which is observed from quantum well structures up to room temperature and from thick, low Bi-content bulk layers at low temperatures. Bismuth is also used as a surfactant during the growth of InAs/InAsSb superlattices at 430°C where it is observed that a small bismuth flux changes the surface reconstruction of InAs from (2×1) to (1×3), reduces the sticking coefficient of antimony, results in a slight increase in photoluminescence intensity, does not significantly incorporate, and does not alter the surface morphology.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number02C120
JournalJournal of Vacuum Science and Technology B:Nanotechnology and Microelectronics
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2014

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Instrumentation
  • Process Chemistry and Technology
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Materials Chemistry


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