Microstructural banding of directed energy deposition-additively manufactured 316L stainless steel

Yoon Hwa, Christopher S. Kumai, Thomas M. Devine, Nancy Yang, Joshua K. Yee, Ryan Hardwick, Kai Burgmann

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


The microstructures of 316 L stainless steel created by rapid solidification are investigated by comparing the similar microstructures of individual hatches of directed energy deposition additive manufacturing (DED-AM) and those of single, laser surface-melted tracks formed on a solid plate. High recoil pressure, which is exponentially dependent on the laser beam power density, induces convection of the melt pool, which causes formation of microstructural bands in the as-solidified microstructure. The microstructural bands are associated with changes in the chromium concentration and are a significant component of the inhomogeneous microstructure of DED-AM.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)96-105
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Materials Science and Technology
StatePublished - Apr 10 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Additive manufacturing
  • Directed energy deposition
  • Microstructure
  • Rapid solidification
  • Recoil pressure
  • Stainless steel

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Polymers and Plastics
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Materials Chemistry


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