Megahertz pulse trains enable multi-hit serial femtosecond crystallography experiments at X-ray free electron lasers

Susannah Holmes, Henry J. Kirkwood, Richard Bean, Klaus Giewekemeyer, Andrew V. Martin, Marjan Hadian-Jazi, Max O. Wiedorn, Dominik Oberthür, Hugh Marman, Luigi Adriano, Nasser Al-Qudami, Saša Bajt, Imrich Barák, Sadia Bari, Johan Bielecki, Sandor Brockhauser, Mathew A. Coleman, Francisco Cruz-Mazo, Cyril Danilevski, Katerina DörnerAlfonso M. Gañán-Calvo, Rita Graceffa, Hans Fanghor, Michael Heymann, Matthias Frank, Alexander Kaukher, Yoonhee Kim, Bostjan Kobe, Juraj Knoška, Torsten Laurus, Romain Letrun, Luis Maia, Marc Messerschmidt, Markus Metz, Thomas Michelat, Grant Mills, Serguei Molodtsov, Diana C.F. Monteiro, Andrew J. Morgan, Astrid Münnich, Gisel E. Peña Murillo, Gianpietro Previtali, Adam Round, Tokushi Sato, Robin Schubert, Joachim Schulz, Megan Shelby, Carolin Seuring, Jonas A. Sellberg, Marcin Sikorski, Alessandro Silenzi, Stephan Stern, Jola Sztuk-Dambietz, Janusz Szuba, Martin Trebbin, Patrick Vagovic, Thomas Ve, Britta Weinhausen, Krzysztof Wrona, Paul Lourdu Xavier, Chen Xu, Oleksandr Yefanov, Keith A. Nugent, Henry N. Chapman, Adrian P. Mancuso, Anton Barty, Brian Abbey, Connie Darmanin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


The European X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) and Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) II are extremely intense sources of X-rays capable of generating Serial Femtosecond Crystallography (SFX) data at megahertz (MHz) repetition rates. Previous work has shown that it is possible to use consecutive X-ray pulses to collect diffraction patterns from individual crystals. Here, we exploit the MHz pulse structure of the European XFEL to obtain two complete datasets from the same lysozyme crystal, first hit and the second hit, before it exits the beam. The two datasets, separated by <1 µs, yield up to 2.1 Å resolution structures. Comparisons between the two structures reveal no indications of radiation damage or significant changes within the active site, consistent with the calculated dose estimates. This demonstrates MHz SFX can be used as a tool for tracking sub-microsecond structural changes in individual single crystals, a technique we refer to as multi-hit SFX.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number4708
JournalNature communications
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Physics and Astronomy
  • General Chemistry
  • General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology


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  • Multi-Hit SFX using MHz XFEL sources

    Wiedorn, M. O. (Contributor), Oberthür, D. (Contributor), Bean, R. (Contributor), Schubert, R. (Contributor), Werner, N. (Contributor), Abbey, B. (Contributor), Aepfelbacher, M. (Contributor), Adriano, L. (Contributor), Allahgholi, A. (Contributor), Al-Qudami, N. (Contributor), Andreasson, J. (Contributor), Aplin, S. (Contributor), Awel, S. (Contributor), Ayyer, K. (Contributor), Bajt, S. (Contributor), Barák, I. (Contributor), Bari, S. (Contributor), Bielecki, J. (Contributor), Botha, S. (Contributor), Boukhelef, D. (Contributor), Brehm, W. (Contributor), Brockhauser, S. (Contributor), Cheviakov, I. (Contributor), Coleman, M. A. (Contributor), Cruz-Mazo, F. (Contributor), Danilevski, C. (Contributor), Darmanin, C. (Contributor), Doak, R. B. (Contributor), Domaracky, M. (Contributor), Dörner, K. (Contributor), Du, Y. (Contributor), Fangohr, H. (Contributor), Fleckenstein, H. (Contributor), Frank, M. (Contributor), Fromme, P. (Contributor), Gañán-Calvo, A. M. (Contributor), Gevorkov, Y. (Contributor), Giewekemeyer, K. (Contributor), Ginn, H. M. (Contributor), Graafsma, H. (Contributor), Graceffa, R. (Contributor), Greiffenberg, D. (Contributor), Gumprecht, L. (Contributor), Göttlicher, P. (Contributor), Hajdu, J. (Contributor), Hauf, S. (Contributor), Heymann, M. (Contributor), Holmes, S. (Contributor), Horke, D. A. (Contributor), Hunter, M. S. (Contributor), Imlau, S. (Contributor), Kaukher, A. (Contributor), Kim, Y. (Contributor), Klyuev, A. (Contributor), Knoška, J. (Contributor), Kobe, B. (Contributor), Kuhn, M. (Contributor), Kupitz, C. (Contributor), Küpper, J. (Contributor), Lahey-Rudolph, J. M. (Contributor), Laurus, T. (Contributor), Le Cong, K. (Contributor), Letrun, R. (Contributor), Xavier, P. L. (Contributor), Maia, L. (Contributor), Maia, F. R. N. C. (Contributor), Mariani, V. (Contributor), Messerschmidt, M. (Contributor), Metz, M. (Contributor), Mezza, D. (Contributor), Michelat, T. (Contributor), Mills, G. (Contributor), Monteiro, D. C. F. (Contributor), Morgan, A. (Contributor), Mühlig, K. (Contributor), Munke, A. (Contributor), Münnich, A. (Contributor), Nette, J. (Contributor), Nugent, K. A. (Contributor), Nuguid, T. (Contributor), Orville, A. M. (Contributor), Pandey, S. (Contributor), Pena, G. (Contributor), Villanueva-Perez, P. (Contributor), Poehlsen, J. (Contributor), Previtali, G. (Contributor), Redecke, L. (Contributor), Riekehr, W. M. (Contributor), Rohde, H. (Contributor), Round, A. (Contributor), Safenreiter, T. (Contributor), Sarrou, I. (Contributor), Sato, T. (Contributor), Schmidt, M. (Contributor), Schmitt, B. (Contributor), Schönherr, R. (Contributor), Schulz, J. (Contributor), Sellberg, J. A. (Contributor), Seibert, M. M. (Contributor), Seuring, C. (Contributor), Shelby, M. L. (Contributor), Shoeman, R. L. (Contributor), Sikorski, M. (Contributor), Silenzi, A. (Contributor), Stan, C. A. (Contributor), Shi, X. (Contributor), Stern, S. (Contributor), Sztuk-Dambietz, J. (Contributor), Szuba, J. (Contributor), Tolstikova, A. (Contributor), Trebbin, M. (Contributor), Trunk, U. (Contributor), Vagovic, P. (Contributor), Ve, T. (Contributor), Weinhausen, B. (Contributor), White, T. A. (Contributor), Wrona, K. (Contributor), Xu, C. (Contributor), Yefanov, O. (Contributor), Zatsepin, N. (Contributor), Zhang, J. (Contributor), Perbandt, M. (Contributor), Mancuso, A. P. (Contributor), Betzel, C. (Contributor), Chapman, H. (Contributor), Barty, A. (Contributor), Estillore, A. D. (Contributor), Kluyver, T. (Contributor), Bergemann, M. (Contributor), Raab, N. (Contributor), Bondar, V. (Contributor), Kirkwood, H. J. (Contributor), Martin, A. V. (Contributor), Hadian-Jazi, M. (Contributor), Marman, H. (Contributor), Fanghor, H. (Contributor), Molodtsov, S. (Contributor) & Peña Murillo, G. E. (Contributor), Protein Data Bank (PDB), Oct 13 2021


  • Multi-Hit SFX using MHz XFEL sources- first hit

    Holmes, S. (Contributor), Kirkwood, H. J. (Contributor), Bean, R. (Contributor), Giewekemeyer, K. (Contributor), Martin, A. V. (Contributor), Hadian-Jazi, M. (Contributor), Wiedorn, M. O. (Contributor), Oberthür, D. (Contributor), Marman, H. (Contributor), Adriano, L. (Contributor), Al-Qudami, N. (Contributor), Bajt, S. (Contributor), Barák, I. (Contributor), Bari, S. (Contributor), Bielecki, J. (Contributor), Brockhauser, S. (Contributor), Coleman, M. A. (Contributor), Cruz-Mazo, F. (Contributor), Danilevski, C. (Contributor), Dörner, K. (Contributor), Gañán-Calvo, A. M. (Contributor), Graceffa, R. (Contributor), Fanghor, H. (Contributor), Heymann, M. (Contributor), Frank, M. (Contributor), Kaukher, A. (Contributor), Kim, Y. (Contributor), Kobe, B. (Contributor), Knoška, J. (Contributor), Laurus, T. (Contributor), Letrun, R. (Contributor), Maia, L. (Contributor), Messerschmidt, M. (Contributor), Metz, M. (Contributor), Michelat, T. (Contributor), Mills, G. (Contributor), Molodtsov, S. (Contributor), Monteiro, D. C. F. (Contributor), Morgan, A. J. (Contributor), Münnich, A. (Contributor), Peña Murillo, G. E. (Contributor), Previtali, G. (Contributor), Round, A. (Contributor), Sato, T. (Contributor), Schubert, R. (Contributor), Schulz, J. (Contributor), Shelby, M. (Contributor), Seuring, C. (Contributor), Sellberg, J. A. (Contributor), Sikorski, M. (Contributor), Silenzi, A. (Contributor), Stern, S. (Contributor), Sztuk-Dambietz, J. (Contributor), Szuba, J. (Contributor), Trebbin, M. (Contributor), Vagovic, P. (Contributor), Ve, T. (Contributor), Weinhausen, B. (Contributor), Wrona, K. (Contributor), Xavier, P. L. (Contributor), Xu, C. (Contributor), Yefanov, O. (Contributor), Nugent, K. A. (Contributor), Chapman, H. N. (Contributor), Mancuso, A. P. (Contributor), Barty, A. (Contributor), Abbey, B. (Contributor) & Darmanin, C. (Contributor), Protein Data Bank (PDB), Jul 20 2022


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