Machismo and mexican american men: An empirical understanding using a gay sample

Fernando Estrada, Marybeth Rigali-Oiler, G. Miguel Arciniega, Terence Tracey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

67 Scopus citations


Machismo continues to be a defining aspect of Mexican American men that informs a wide array of psychological and behavioral dimensions. Although strides have been made in this area of research, understanding of the role of this construct in the lives of gay men remains incomplete. Our purpose in this study was to gain a deeper understanding of machismo using a sample of Mexican American gay men. This study examined for the first time whether a 2-factor model of machismo previously validated with heterosexual, Mexican American men generalized to a sample of 152 gay men of similar ethnic background. Relations between machismo, sexual risk, and internalized homophobia were also explored. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the 2-factor model with the current sample. Results also indicated machismo as predicting internalized homophobia and as an index of risky sex. Limitations are presented and implications are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)358-367
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of counseling psychology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jul 2011


  • Gay
  • Latino
  • Machismo
  • Men
  • Mexican

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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